Thursday, January 24, 2013


                  S A G E   D U R V A S A

 In Hindu mythology, Durvasa or Durvasas, was an ancient sage, the son of Atri and Anasuya. He is supposed to be an incarnation of Shiva.

He is known for his short temper. Maledictions or curses he gave in his rage ruined many lives. Hence, wherever he went, he was received with great reverence (out of fear) from humans and Devas alike.He is commonly portrayed as desiring to enjoy others' hospitality, and becoming exceedingly angry when hosts display any sort of impropriety or fail to please him as a guest. Conversely, hosts who serve him well are often blessed by him.

According to Chapter 44 of the Brahmananda Purana, Brahma and Shiva once got into a heated quarrel. So violent was Shiva's rage as a result of this quarrel, that the Devas fled from his presence in fear. His consort, Parvati, complained that Shiva was now impossible to live with. Realising the disharmony his anger had caused, he decided to deposit this anger into Anasuya, the wife of sage Atri. From this portion of Shiva deposited into Anasuya, a child was born, who was named Durvasa (literally, one who is difficult to live with). Because he was born of Shiva's anger, he had an irascible nature.

The Bhagavata Purana gives a somewhat different account of Durvasa's birth.In this version, Atri performed severe penance to propitiate the Supreme Being in order to obtain a son by Anasuya who would be just like Him. Pleased with him, Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva (being but different manifestations of the Supreme) blessed the sage that portions of themselves would be born as his sons. In due course, Anasuya bore Soma (Brahma's incarnation), Dattatreya (Vishnu's), and Durvasa (Shiva's).The famous Durvasa Ashram is situated in Azamgarh where thousands of his students were used to take education.

Durvasa and Shakuntala

In the Abhijñanashakuntala, written by Kalidasa, when the maiden Shakuntala ignored Durvasa's demands to be welcomed as a guest because she was daydreaming about her lover, Dushyanta, he cursed her that her lover would forget her. Horrified, Shakuntala's companions managed to mollify Durvasa, who softened the curse, saying that Dushyanta would remember Shakuntala when he saw the ring that he gave her as a token of their love.The sage's curse came true of course,and was eventually lifted, just as he said it would be. By the end of the play, the two lovers are reconciled, and are happy to be together again, along with their son, Bharata.

Durvasa, Rama, and Lakshmana

In the Uttara Kanda of Valmiki's Ramayana, Durvasa appears at Rama's doorstep, and seeing Lakshmana guarding the door, demands an audience with Rama. At the time, Rama was having a private conversation with Death disguised as an ascetic. Before the conversation began, Death gave Rama strict instructions that their dialogue was to remain confidential, and anyone who entered the room and saw or heard them was to be executed. Rama agreed and entrusted Lakshmana with the duty of guarding his door and fulfilling his promise to Death. Thus, when Durvasa made his demand, Lakshmana politely asked the sage to wait until Rama had finished his meeting. The sage grew angry and threatened to curse all of Ayodhya if Lakshmana did not immediately inform Rama of his arrival. Lakshmana, in a dilemma, decided it would be better that he alone die to save all of Ayodhya from falling under Durvasa's curse, and so interrupted Rama's meeting to inform him of the sage's arrival. Rama quickly concluded his meeting with Death and received the sage with due courtesy. Durvasa told Rama of his desire to be fed, and Rama fulfilled his guest's request, whereupon the satisfied sage went on his way. Rama was overcome with sorrow, for he did not want to kill his beloved brother, Lakshmana. Still, he had given his word to Death and could not go back on it. He called his advisers to help him resolve this quandary. On Vasishta's advice, he ordered Lakshmana to leave him for good, since such abandonment was equivalent to death as far as the pious were concerned. Lakshmana then went to the banks of the Sarayu, resolved on giving up the ghost via Yoga. Unseen by anyone, Indra took him to heaven.

Durvasa and Kunti

In the Mahabharata, Durvasa is known for granting boons to those who had pleased him, particularly when he had been served well as an honoured guest. An example of such behaviour is the episode between him and Kunti (the future wife of Pandu and mother of the Pandavas). When Kunti was a young girl, she lived in the house of her adopted father, Kuntibhoja. Durvasa visited Kuntibhoja one day, and sought his hospitality. The king entrusted the sage to his daughter's care and tasked Kunti with the responsibility of entertaining the sage and meeting all his needs during his stay with them.Kunti patiently put up with Durvasa's temper and his unreasonable requests (such as demanding food at odd hours of the night) and served the sage with great dedication. Eventually, the sage was gratified. Before departing, he rewarded Kunti by teaching her Atharva Veda Mantras which enabled her to invoke any god of her choice to beget children by them.It was by the use of this mantra that she was able to call the following gods:

Surya - He blessed her with a son named Karna, the unknown eldest Pandava

Dharma or Yama - He blessed her with a son named Yudhisthira, most righteous of the Pandavas.

Vayu - He blessed her with a son named Bhima, of great strength

Indra - He blessed her with a son named Arjuna, the great archer

The twin Ashvins - They blessed Madri (Pandu's second wife) with beautiful twins named Nakula and Sahadeva.

Protecting Draupadi's Modesty

Contrary to the more famous Mahabharata version of Dushasana's attempted disrobing of Draupadi, the Shiva Purana (III.19.63-66) attributes her miraculous rescue to a boon granted by Durvasa.[41] The story goes that the sage's loincloth was once carried away by the Ganges's currents. Draupadi quickly tore a piece of her garment to cover him. The sage was pleased with her. He granted Draupadi a boon which caused an unending stream of cloth to cover her when Dushasana was trying to strip her in Hastinapura's royal dice-hall.

Durvasa and Duryodhana

Another example of Durvasa's benevolent side is the incident when he granted Duryodhana a boon. During the Pandavas' exile, Durvasa and several disciples arrived at Hastinapura, and were gratified by Duryodhana's devoted hospitality. Durvasa was pleased enough to grant him a boon. Duryodhana, secretly wanting Durvasa to curse the Pandavas in anger, asked the sage to visit his cousins in the forest after Draupadi had eaten her meal, knowing that the Pandavas would then have nothing to feed him.

Visiting the Pandavas

So Durvasa and his disciples visited the Pandavas in their hermitage in the forest, as per Duryodhana's
request. During this period of exile, the Pandavas would obtain their food by means of the Akshaya Patra,
which would become exhausted each day once Draupadi finished her meal.Because Draupadi had already eaten by the time Durvasa arrived that day, there was no food left to serve him, and the Pandavas were very anxious as to their fate should they fail to feed such a venerable sage. While Durvasa and his disciples were away bathing at the river, Draupadi prayed to Krishna for help. Krishna immediately appeared before Draupadi saying he was extremely hungry, and asked her for food. Draupadi grew exasperated and said she had prayed to Krishna precisely because she had no food left to give. Krishna then told her to bring the Akshaya Patra to him. When she did, he partook of the lone grain of rice and piece of vegetable that he found stuck to the vessel and announced that he was satisfied by the "meal". This satiated the hunger of Durvasa and his disciples, as the satisfaction of Krishna (portrayed here as the Supreme Being who pervades the entire Universe) meant the satiation of the hunger of all living things. The sage Durvasa and his disciples then quietly left after their bath, without returning to the Pandavas' hermitage, for they were afraid of facing what they thought would be the Pandavas' wrathful reaction at their impolite behaviour of refusing the food that would be served to them.

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Wednesday, January 23, 2013


                            D E V A R S H I    N A R A D A

Sage   Narada


The Bhagavata Purana describes the story of Narada's spiritual enlightenment: He was the primary source of information among Gods, and is believed to be the first journalist on Earth. He never married but claimed to have 60 wives. In his previous birth Narada was a Gandharva (angelic being) who had been cursed to be born on an earthly planet due to some offense.[citation needed] He was born as the son of a maid-servant of some particularly saintly priests (Brahmins). The priests, being pleased with both his and his mother's service, blessed him by allowing him to eat some of their food (prasad), previously offered to their lord, Vishnu.
Gradually Narada received further blessings from these sages and heard them discussing many spiritual topics. After his mother died, he decided to roam the forest in search of enlightenment in understanding the 'Supreme Absolute Truth'.

Reaching a tranquil forest location, after quenching his thirst from a nearby stream, he sat under a tree in meditation (yoga), concentrating on the paramatma form of Vishnu within his heart as he had been taught by the priests he had served. After some time Narada experienced a vision wherein Narayan (Vishnu) appeared before him, smiling, and spoke "that despite having the blessing of seeing him at that very moment, Narada would not be able to see his (Vishnu's) divine form again until he died". Narayan further explained that the reason he had been given a chance to see his form was because his beauty and love would be a source of inspiration and would fuel his dormant desire to be with the lord again. After instructing Narada in this manner, Vishnu then disappeared from his sight. The boy awoke from his meditation both thrilled and disappointed.

For the rest of his life Narada focused on his devotion, meditation upon and worship to Vishnu. After his death Vishnu then blessed him with the spiritual form of "Narada" as he eventually became known. In many Hindu scriptures Narada is considered a saktyavesa-avatara or partial-manifestation (avatar) of God, empowered to perform miraculous tasks on Vishnu's behalf.

Actually Narada is not an saint, he is the incarnation of Lord Narayana, in 1st canto Srimad Bhagavat Mahapuran, it is mentioned Devarshi Narada is the 3rd incarnation of Lord Vishnu out of 22 incarnations. He incarnated to teach Bhakti yoga, he is also called Bhaktya Avatara. Narada played very significant role with Lord Vishnu almost in all Puranas including Ramayan and Mahabharat, Krsna says in Gita, out of all the devine sages I am Narada. Narada is the one who give Ramayan knowledge to sage Valmiki and he gave Bhagavat Mahapuran knowledge to Veda Vyas.
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Narada and the Illusion of Maya 

Sage Narada was a Maharishi, a renowned teacher, inspirer of poets, counsellor of kings, a divine messenger, and also a notorious ‘mischief-maker’. The word 'Nara' means knowledge useful to mankind and 'Da' means 'a giver'. So 'Narada' means the one who gives knowledge to mankind and imparts right guidance.

Narada with a knotted tuft of hair in the center of an otherwise clean-shaven scalp, usually makes his characteristic entry with a Veena (a stringed musical instrument) in his hand and the name of Lord Narayana on his lips: “Narayana, Narayana”!

According to Mahabharata, Narada was the son of Kashyap and his mother was one of the daughters of Daksha. Narada is shown as a wandering seer going from one place to another, traversing the whole universe.

He is reputed to have invented the Veena, the principal stringed musical instrument of India and is deemed to be the chief of all the celestial musicians (Gandharvas). He always loved to sing songs praising the glory of the almighty Lord Vishnu (Narayana). He used to traverse around the universe, preaching to people, his words of wisdom and narrating stories of ethical value through his devotional songs, in praise of the almighty preserver of the world: Lord Vishnu

Narada as ‘Kalaha-Priya’ or Lover of Quarrels 

Narada is so famous as a mischief-maker and a quarrel-monger, that in India, a mischievous person who always delights in backbiting and indulges in spreading rumors, is symbolically chided as ‘Narada’.

Narada had the habit of disclosing to both gods and demons, the secrets about each other. Gods and demons, eventually, detested each other. Narada's deeds often created trouble and friction among gods, demons and men, and such friction often led to a war in the end. Hence Narada, being a notorious mischief-maker, acquired the name, Kalaha-Priya or the lover of quarrels.

How can we call such a person a saint? Was it right that he set people against one another by spreading gossip? But we must remember that rada's intention was to espouse a good cause. It was his constant desire that bad people should be punished for their deeds, that the haughty ones should learn their lesson soon, and that the good should live happily ever after.

Chanting “Narayana, Narayana,” the divine sage Narada went across the three worlds spreading rumors, causing rifts.

In Vaikuntha (Lord Vishnu’s Abode), he would regale the Lord with his merry tales. “I described Ahilya’s beauty to Indra until he began lusting for that married woman…Daksha hates Shiva after I reported how Shiva ridicules him…I made Shreedevi jealous of Bhoodevi…I put the fear of death in Kansa’s mind…I praised the pompous Ravana into believing that he was greater than all Gods…”

“Why do you do this, Narada?” asked Vishnu.

“Do What?”

“Cause so much trouble”

“I don’t do anything. I merely test their faith in you. If they were your true devotees, would any of them be lustful, wrathful, greedy, envious, frightened or proud?”

Vishnu burst out laughing and blessed his dearest devotee Narada, who kept chanting, “Narayana, Narayana”.

Curse on Narada: "May You Wander Like A Vagabond”

The children of Dakshabrahma were once instructed by him: "O my children! Observe penance and you will derive strength and spiritual splendor. Later you must get married and lead a contented life." In response to the command of the father, the children went to the Himalayas and commenced a rigorous penance.

Narada happened to go there. "O sons of Dakshabrahma, why at all are you observing such a penance? And get married later? There is no joy in married life. You must develop devotion for the Lord. Your aim must be to escape the sorrows of family life. Must you observe penance only to get trapped in misery? Practice renunciation, aspire for deliverance." Saying thus, Narada went away, advising Daksha’s sons to choose the path of asceticism and not to lead a worldly life.

The advice of Narada made a tremendous impact on the minds of the children of Daksha. They took an oath not to marry. This news upset Daksha. His anger knew no bounds. He said to Narada: "O Narada, it was my heart's desire that my children should marry and lead a happy household life. But you interfered and misled them. Don't you have any other occupation? I am cursing you to remain a vagabond eternally!"

Narada was not upset by the curse. "All the better indeed! I shall spend all my time wandering and preaching the people the best" he determined. Thus, Narada is shown as a wandering seer always on a journey, as he was condemned by Daksha to lead a roaming life, not staying at one place.

Narada as ‘Kapi-Vaktra’ or Monkey-Faced 

Narada is also known as Kapi-Vaktra or monkey-faced because once Vishnu changed his face into that of a monkey. This episode makes an interesting study of how God curbs the Ahamkar (Pride) of even the best of seers. It mentions that once Narada’s meditation could not be disturbed even by Kamadeva (the God of Lust). At this victory, Narada was overwhelmed by a feeling of immense pride, unbecoming to a seer.

Vishnu decided to teach him a lesson by humbling his pride. He asked his consort Lakshmi to re-incarnate herself as a beautiful daughter of Ambarisha (the then ruler of Ayodhya), by the name of Srimati. She was an embodiment of all good qualities.

During one of his usual sojourns, Narada reached the kingdom of Ayodhya, and on seeing the beautiful princess Srimati, fell in love with her, being attracted by her beauty and wanted to marry her. He secretly disclosed to King Ambarisha his heart's desire.

Ambarisha was in a fix. How could he disobey the great sage Narada-Muni for the fear of being cursed by him? So he said to him:

"O revered sage, you desire the hand of my daughter. How am I to decide? Well, I shall arrange a Swayamvara. Whomsoever Srimati selects, shall be her husband."

Narada approached Lord Shiva to seek his advice as to how to attain the beautiful maiden. Lord Shiva said that he should borrow the same visage as that of Vishnu, which the princess could never resist and would surely garland Narada as her husband.

So Narada went to Vaikuntha to consult Vishnu. He narrated to him all that had happened and implored to him: "O Lord, have mercy on me and do me a favor. At the time of the Swayamvara, please make me look as handsome as you. The Lord smilingly assented but played a trick and gave the face of a monkey to Narada.

The day of the Swayamvara came. Not knowing what had happened to his face, Narada reached the Palace where the marriage ceremony was to take place. King Ambarisha led his beautiful daughter Srimati to the dais of the Swayamvara. Srimati blushingly stood before all the prospective suitors with garland in her hand. But she was taken aback when she saw Narada. Her hand trembled. She said: "Father, I can see no Rishi here. Instead I find a man, with a monkey's face.” But just beside him, I find an attractive, handsome man with a lovely smile. He has stretched his right hand as if to beckon me."

She garlanded the handsome man standing beside Narada and all at once, they both vanished into oblivion. The handsome man was none other than Lord Vishnu.

Narada was astonished and dismayed. He discovered his monkey-face in the reflection of a pool of water and became enraged. He cursed Vishnu then and there, proclaiming that Vishnu, in one of his earthly re-incarnations would have to bear the pangs of his wife’s imposed separation from him and only a monkey would be able to relieve him of his sufferings. Thus, when Vishnu was born as Rama, Hanuman helped him to free Sita from the clutches of Ravana.

But wisdom also dawned on Narada and he realized that Lord Vishnu had taught him a lesson for his conceit and pride. He felt ashamed that he should have even thought of marriage. He took an oath that he would remain a bachelor for life.

Narada: Learning should not be only book-based 

Once Narada was sitting in Lord Shiva’s court on Mount Kailasa. It was attended by illustrious sages and brahmarishis. Just then Durvasa entered the assembly carrying a huge bundle of books. Although Durvasa was a great saint, he was highly irascible and quick-tempered. Ignoring the august assembly, he went and sat beside Lord Shiva. Shiva asked him smilingly: "Sir, how are your studies progressing?" The saint proudly displayed his bundle of books and said, "I have thoroughly studied these books and I know them by heart."

Narada stood up and called Durvasa a donkey carrying a burden of books on his back. Durvasa thundered in wrath.

Narada retorted, "There you are! You have not been able to get over your passions in spite of your scholarship. You have ignored the assembly and gone and sat by Lord Shiva. What good is scholarship without respect, patience and forgiveness? These books are nothing but the burden of a donkey."

Durvasa realized his folly, immersed his books into the sea and went for a long penance to seek atonement and self-realization.

The Mystical Maya 

In Devi Bhagwata Purana, it is mentioned that once Narada asked Vishnu about the secret nature of Maya (Illusion).

“What is Maya?” asked Narada.

“The world is my Maya. He who accepts this, realizes me,” said Vishnu.

“Before I explain, will you fetch me some water?” requested the Lord pointing to a river.

Narada did as he was told. But on his way back, he saw a beautiful woman. Smitten by her beauty, he begged the woman to marry him. She agreed.

Narada built a house for his wife on the banks of the river. She bore him many children. Loved by his wife, adored by his sons and daughters, Narada forgot all about his mission to fetch water for Vishnu.

In time, Narada’s children had children of their own. Surrounded by his grandchildren, Narada felt happy and secure. Nothing could go wrong.

Suddenly, dark clouds enveloped the sky. There was thunder, lightning, and rain. The river overflowed, broke its banks and washed away Narada’s house, drowning everyone he loved, everything he possessed. Narada himself was swept away by the river.

“Help, help. Somebody please help me,” he cried. Vishnu immediately stretched out his hand and pulled Narada out of the water.

Back in Vaikuntha, Vishnu asked, “Where is my water?”

“How can you be so remorseless? How can you ask me for water when I have lost my entire family?”

Vishnu smiled. “Calm down, Narada. Tell me, where did your family come from? From Me. I am the only reality, the only entity in the cosmos that is eternal and unchanging. Everything else is an illusion – a mirage, constantly slipping out of one’s grasp.”

“You, my greatest devotee, knew that. Yet, enchanted by the pleasures of worldly life, you forgot all about me. You deluded yourself into believing that your world and your life were all that mattered and nothing else was of any consequence. As per your perspective, the material world was infallible, invulnerable, perfect. That is Maya.”

Thus Vishnu dispelled Narada’s illusion, bringing him back to the realm of reality and making him comprehend the power of Maya over man.

Narada: The Noble Seer 

Narada figures in Mahabharata and Krishna stories as the seer who foretold the death of Kamsa at the hands of Krishna. A holy personage and celestial musician, always facilitating the good of the world; engaged in aiding the pious in times of challenge and in hastening the retribution of evil-doers.

"Keep your army as well as the weaponry always in readiness...Be kind to your servants in order to win their hearts...Always be prompt in paying the wages of the soldiers and servants. Never spend more than what you earn. Build lakes and canals and provide the farmers with all facilities."

The above words seem like the advice of a modern political pundit to a senior administrator of a state. Army, weaponry, income-expenditure, farmers, lakes and canals - who is it that gave the above counsel?

It was indeed Narada, who addressed the wise words quoted above, to king Yudhishthira, in the epic Mahabharata.

Traversing the three worlds, Narada preached the Path of Devotion to the Lord. Figuring in all major epics like the Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagwat Purana and in all the three Yugas - Krita, Treta and Dwapara, he led many noble souls to salvation through his religious discourses.

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Tuesday, January 22, 2013


                      S A G E   K A S H Y A P A 

Sage   Kashyapa
  Kashyap was one of the Saptarshi Brahmins. According to Hindu Mythology, he is the son of Marichi, one of the ten sons (Manasa-putras) of the Creator Brahma. The Prajapati Daksha gave his thirteen daughters: Aditi, Diti, Kadru, Danu, Arishta, Surasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Tamra, Krodhavaśā, Ida, Khasa and Muniin,  for marriage to Kashyap.

His sons from Aditi  were, Aṃśa, Aryaman, Bhaga, Dhatr, Mitra, Pūṣan, a daughter Bhumidevi, Śakra, Savitr, Tvastr, Varuna, Visnu, and Vivasvat or Vivasvan, who went on to start the Solar Dynasty (Suryavansha), which later came to be known as Ikshvaku dynasty, after his great grandson, King Ikshvaku, whose subsequent kings were, Kukshi, Vikukshi, Bana, Anaranya, Prithu, Trishanku, and finally King Raghu, who gave it the name, Raghuvansh (Dynasty of Raghu), and then further leading up to Lord Ram, the son of Dashrath.

His sons from Diti were, Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha and a daughter Sinhika, who later became the wife of Viprachitti. Hiranyakashipu had four sons, Anuhlada, Hlada, Prahlada, and Sanhlada, who further extended the Daityas.

Garuda and Aruna are the sons of Kashyap from his wife, Vinata.

The Nāgas (serpents) are his sons from Kadru.

The Danavas are his sons from Danu.

The Bhagavata Purana states that the Apsaras were born from Kashyap and Muni.

Uttar Ramayana says Diti had a son named Maya who was the lord of Daityas.

In the family line of Kashyap, along with him there are two more discoverers of Mantras, namely, his sons Avatsara and Asita. Two sons of Avatsara, namely, Nidhruva and Rebha, are also Mantra-seers. In the Manvantara period named 'Svarochisha', Kashyap was one of the seven Sages (saptarishi) for that manvantara. The Indian valley of Kashmir in the Himalayas is named after him.

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Birth And Lineage of Kashyap

Saint Kashyap played an important role in the development of this world. He is also known as Anishtanemi. His mother was Kala who was the daughter of Saint Kardam and sister of Kapil Deva. According to Puranas, Saint Kashyap’s asylum was situated at the top of Meru hill where he resided and offered austerities to Lord Brahma. Saint Kashyap was respected by all Devas, Demons and humans. He wrote various religious and mythological texts.

According to Puranas, Daksha Prajapati was born from Lord Brahma and married Aksini who gave him 66 daughters. Thirteen of these daughters married Saint Kashyap and played an important role in the development of the world. Saint Kashyap’s wives were Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kashta, Arishta, Sursa, Ila, Muni, Krodhvasha, Tamra, Surbhi, Timi, Vinta, Kadru, Patangi and Yamini. Saint Kashyap is one of the Saptrishi who were Vashishta, Kashyap, Atri, Gautam, Vishwamitra, Bhardwaj and Jamadgni.

Saint Kashyap Gotra
A gotra has been named after Saint Kashyap. Any person who does not have knowledge about his Gotra is believed to be of Kashyap Gotra. This is because it is believed that all people ascended from Saint Kashyap. Hence, Saint Kashyap is also regarded as the father of the earth.

Rishi Kashyap And Parshuram
Parshuram won every battle and killed all Kshatriyas on the earth. He then organised an Ashwamedha Yagya in which he donated the whole Earth to Saint Kashyap. Out of the fear of losing all Kshatriyas, Saint Kashyap asks Parshuram to travel to the Mahendra mountain facing the Southern ocean. Parshuram does the same and swears that he would not stay on earth at nights.
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Saturday, January 19, 2013


                                 S A G E   P A R A S H U R A M A 

Sage Parashuram

Parashurama (Sanskrit: परशुराम), (Paraśurāma), is the sixth avatar of Vishnu, descendant of Brahma and pupil of Shiva. He is son of Renuka and the saptarishi Jamadagni. He lived during the last Treta Yuga, and is one of the seven immortals of Hinduism, or Chiranjivi. He received an axe after undertaking terrible penance to please Shiva, who in turn taught him the martial arts.

Parashurama is most known for ridding the world of kshatriyas twenty-one times over after the mighty king Kartavirya killed his father. He played important roles in the Mahabharata and Ramayana, serving as mentor to Karna and Drona. Parashurama also fought back the advancing seas to save the lands of Konkan, Malabar and Kerala.

Parashurama is worshipped as mool purush, or founder, of the Bhumihar, Chitpavan, Daivadnya, Mohyal, Shukla and Tyagi Brahmin communities.


The exact birthplace of Parashurama is contested, although the history of his lineage took place in the Haihaya Kingdom located in modern day Maheshwar.

The grandfather of Parashurama was a great rishi named Rucheeka, and was a direct descendant of Brahma. One day, the rishi was traveling through the countryside seeking a bride. At the time, there were two dominant clans, the Bharat-Suryavamsha, or Solar Dynasty and the Chandra-vamsha, or Lunar Dynasty. The ruling King Gadhi belonged to the Lunar Dynasty and had a beautiful daughter, Satyavati, who was unwed. Rucheeka visited the king, who entertained him at his court. The rishi was besot with the beauty of Satyavati, and at the end of the evening he asked the king to have her as his bride.

The king was taken aback, but could not deny the request of a Brahmin. As such, he agreed to give his daughter away to the rishi, but on condition that Rucheeka give him one-thousand horses, all with one ear black and the body entirely white.

The rishi agreed to the demand of the king. He then did penance to Varuna, and was blessed with the horses that the king had requested. Rucheeka gave them as dowry, and in turn received Satyavati for marriage.

Satyavati adjusted well to an ascetic life as she was blessed with a good countenance, but she did not have any children. Meanwhile, at the kingdom, her father had no heir to the throne as well, and this also worried Satyavati. One day, Rucheeka asked her what was wrong, and she told him of her concerns for the kingdom.

The rishi agreed to help both Satyavati and her mother. He gave Satyavati two potions, one for her mother so that she would have a mighty Kshatriya son, and one for Satyavati so that she would have a son that would become a great sage. Satyavati gave the potions to her mother. However, not trusting the sage, her mother switched the containers.

In time, both mother and daughter found they were expecting children. However, the sage noticed that when he looked at his wife he saw a Kshatriya aura, and he asked what had happened. Satyavati told Rucheeka, to which he responded, 'Now our son will be a great warrior instead of a king." Satyavati begged the rishi to instead make her grandson become the great warrior and her son a rishi. Seeing her distress, Rucheeka acquiesced. Satyavati gave birth to a son, Jamadagni, who became a great saptarishi, while her grandson Parashurama was sixth incarnation of Vishnu, and one of the greatest warriors of his age.


The exact location of his birth is contested, although puranas claim that he was born at Renuka Tirth as the sixth incarnation of Lord Vishnu.Other locations that have claimed his birthright have included:

Renuka Kuti, Jalalabad, Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh

Bala Parashurama, Mahur, Maharashtra

Jana paav, Tehsil Mhow, Indore, Madhya Pradesh


Renkuta, Agra or Mathura district, Uttar Pradesh

Renuka Lake, Himachal Pradesh

Surparaka, Sopara

Early life
His father, Jamadagni, was a direct descendant of Brahma. Renuka gave birth to four sons before Parashurama: Vasu, Viswa Vasu, Brihudyanu, and Brutwakanwa. Before the birth of their fifth son, Jamadagni meditated with his wife Renuka at Tape Ka Tiba near Renuka lake for divine providence. With the blessing of Shiva, Vishnu answered their wishes and was born from the womb of Renuka as their fifth and youngest son, whom they named Rambhadra, or Rama.

Renuka and the clay pot

Renuka was known for her chastity and devotion to her husband. Such was her faith, that she was able to fetch water from the river in a pot of unbaked clay, with the pot held together only by the strength of her devotion.

One day while at the river, a group of Gandharvas in a chariot passed by in the sky above. Filled with desire for only a moment, the unbaked pot she held dissolved in the river. Afraid to return to her husband, she waited at the river bank, uncertain of what to do next. Meanwhile, Jamadagni noticed his wife had not returned. Through his yogic powers, he divined all that had taken place and was enraged. The rishi called his eldest son, handed him an axe and asked the boy to kill his mother. Horrifed, the boy refused, and so Jamadagni turned him to stone. He then asked each of his sons, and as they refused, one by one, he turned them to stone. Finally only his youngest son, Parashurama, was left. Ever obedient, the boy beheaded his mother.

Pleased, Jamadagni then offered two boons to Parashurama. The boy asked that his mother be brought back to life, and his brothers to be returned from stone to flesh. Impressed by the affection and devotion of his son, Jamadagni granted his request.

Kartavirya Arjuna and the Haihaya Kingdom
The time of Parashurama was a tumultuous one for the Indian subcontinent, with puranas indicating frequent battles between several rival Kshatriya clans and kingdoms. Parashurama lived within the Haihaya kingdom, located in modern day Maheshwar on the banks of the Narmada River. The Haihaya were a savage people, described in the Srimad Bhagavatam as 'the Uncivilized'.The generations of enmity between the Kshatriya Haihaya and the Brahmin Bhargavas, from whom Parashurama hailed, were mentioned in the Mahabharata numerous times.

The Haihaya were ruled by a powerful and cruel king named Kartavirya Arjuna.He was the incarnation of Sudarshana, a prideful Chakra that had taken birth in human form.In addition, Kartavirya worshipped a divine being known as Dattatreya, embodiment of Trimurti and descendant of the saptarishi Atri. For his obeisance, Aryadatta had granted the king a flying golden chariot that would travel wherever he wished, and one-thousand arms.

With these boons, Kartavirya became immeasurably powerful, conducting many military conquests. The military corporations of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Pahlavas and Paradas, known as the Five Hordes, also gave their support to the Haihaya and Talajunga.Haihaya was of the Lunar Dynasty and went on to sack Kashi. In return, the Solar Dynasty fought back, and expelling the Haihayas from Vatsa. Kartavirya then defeated the Nāga, after which he made Mahishmati in present day Maheshwar capital of his kingdom, and prevented Ikshvaku King Bahu, descendant of Harishchandra, from taking back Ayodhya, which was his by birthright.A generation later, Sagara, son of Bahu, recaptured Ayodhya with Kartavirya dead. After defeating the Haihaya, he shaved their heads to humiliate them. His retaking of Ayodhya would set the stage for the upcoming Ramayana.[8] Kartavirya became so powerful that he was even able to defeat and imprison the demon king Ravana at the river Godavari. Ravana, in turn, would later be the nemesis of the Ramayana.

Genocide of the Brighu and the sacred calf

The violent persecution of Brahmins by Kshatriya had at the time spanned generations. Aurva, great-grandfather of Parashurama, recalled a vivid childhood experience:

While lying unborn, I heard the doleful cries of my mother and other women of the Bhrigu race who were then being exterminated by the Kshatriyas. When those Kshatriyas began to exterminate the Bhrigus together with unborn children of their race, it was then that wrath filled my soul. My mother and the other women of our race, each in an advanced state of pregnancy, and my father, while terribly alarmed, found not in all the worlds a single protector. Then when the Bhrigu women found not a single protector, my mother held me in one of her thighs.
—Mahabharata 1:182

As the third book of the Mahabharata begins, Akritavrana, a disciple of the avatar speaks:
With pleasure shall I recite that excellent history of the godlike deeds of Rama, the son of Jamadagni who traced his origin to the race of Brighu.
—Mahabharata 3:117

As Rama grew older, he was sincere in his piety, and pleased Lord Shiva with the performation of excruciating tapas. As blessing, he was granted the Parashu of Shiva, after which he was known as Parashurama, or 'Rama with axe'.

Soon after Parashurama received his blessing, King Kartavirya of the Haihaya came upon the hermitage of Jamadagni The visit happened at a time Parusharama was away in the forest gathering yagna, and although the king had a massive entourage, the saptarishi was able to serve the king a grand feast. When Kartavirya asked how he was able to do so, Jamadagni showed him a blessed Kamadhenu calf, given to Jamadagni by Indra, which was able to grant wishes. Kartavirya was covetous and wanted the calf as his own. The rishi refused, and Kartavirya stole the sacred animal.

Returning home, Parashurama was infuriated and traveled to the royal palace. Brandishing his axe, he decimated its guards and killed the mighty King Kartavirya, retrieving the calf. When he returned home, his father was pleased, but seeing the blood stained axe of Parashurama, also concerned. He cautioned his son he must be aware of wrath and pride. Parashurama accepted the reprimand of his father, in penance, and went on a pilgrimage to holy places for one year in purification.

Meanwhile, the sons of Kartavirya discovered their father at the palace and knew that only Parashurama could have killed him. In revenge, they traveled to the hermitage and murdered Jamadagni, surrounding the rishi and shooting him to death with arrows like a stag. Afterwards, they decapitated his body and took his head with them.

When Parashurama returned home, he found his mother next to the body of his father, crying hysterically as she beat her chest twenty-one times in a row. Furious, he hunted down the sons of Kartavirya at the palace. He killed them all and returned with the head of his father to conduct the cremation. Parashurama then vowed to enact a genocide on the war-mongering Kshatriyas twenty-one times over, once for each time the hand of his mother hit her chest.

Vengeance against Kshatriya

Parashurama then travelled throughout the Indian subcontinent, killing all men of the Kshatriya caste, guilty or innocent. The first book of the Mahabharata writes:

In the interval between the Treta and Dwapara Yugas, Parashurama, great among all who have borne arms, urged by impatience of wrongs, repeatedly smote the noble race of Kshatriyas. And when that fiery meteor, by his own valour, annihilated the entire tribe of the Kshatriyas, he formed at Samanta-panchaka five lakes of blood.
—Mahabharata 1:2

One legend describes Parasharuma returning to a village after battle in what is now the Badami Taluka, Bagalkot district of Karnataka. While the warrior-sage washed his axe beyond a sharp turn in the river Malaprabha, unknown to him, village women were cleaning their clothes downstream. His mighty axe stained the entire river red, and the women exclaimed "Ai hole!" translating to 'Oh, what a river!'. This is said to be the etymology of the present-day village Aihole.

There is another legend that the Nairs, Bunts and Nagas of Kerala and Tulunadu, receiving word as Parashurama approached, took the sacred threads that marked them twice-born, hid them in the forest and traveled south. Parashurama then gave their land to the Nambuthiri Brahmins, and the Nambuthiri then denied the Nairs and Bunts their status as royalty when Parashurama left.

After he had finally rid the world of Kshatriyas, Parashurama conducted the Ashvamedha sacrifice, done only by sovereign kings, and gave the land he had conquered to the Brahmin head-priests, who performed the yagya Kashyapa. The Ashvamedha demanded that the remaining Kshatriya kings either submit to Parashurama, or stop the sacrifice by defeating him in battle. They were unable to do either, and so perished.


Parashurama is unique in that although he is the sixth avatar of Vishnu, as an immortal, he has also lived to see the subsequent incarnations of Vishnu in Rama, Krishna and Buddha. Parashurama played an important role in both the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Shiva's Bow

In the Ramayana, Parashurama had given the bow of Shiva to the father of princess Sita for her swayamvar. As a test of worthiness, suitors were asked to lift and string the mythic weapon. None were successful until Rama, but in the process of being strung, the bow snapped in half. This produced a tremendous noise that reached the ears of Parashurama as he meditated atop the Mahendra Mountains.

In one version played in Ramlilas across India, Parashurama arrived to the scene deeply angry. The Kshatriyas were advised by Brahmarishi Vasistha not to confront the sage, but Sita still approached. Parashurama blessed her, saying "Dheergha Sumangali bhavah," or "You will have your husband alive for your lifetime."

When he then turned to confront Rama, Parashurama was unable to lift his axe. He was held back by his own word and pacified by the brilliance of Rama. When the warrior-sage realized he was looking at his own subsequent reincarnation, his own bow flew to Rama along with the essence of Vishnu, and thus the seventh avatar was fully realized.

Vow of Bhishma

Parashurama and Bhishma, two of the greatest warriors of the epics, shared an interesting history together as guru and student. Bhishma was a Kuru prince, and Parashurama instructed him in the martial arts as a boy. Their conflict began years later, with the beautiful princess Amba. Along with her sisters Ambika and Ambalika, princess Amba had been abducted by Bhishma in a misunderstanding between two kingdoms. Now, with her honor tainted, no man would take her for bride, and she was condemned to remain destitute. Bhishma himself was unable to marry due to his bhishana pratigya, or vow of celibacy, and allegiance to Hastinapur.Amba then sought the help of Parashurama to kill Bhishma.

Taking pity on her plight, the avatar agreed to fight his former student on her behalf. The battle lasted twenty-three days, by the end of which, both warriors were bloodied and filled with arrows. Bhishma had knowledge of the divine deadly weapon Pashupatastra, which had the power to put a foe to sleep, and of which Parashurama was unaware. When he was about to use the celestial weaponry, all Gods rushed to Bhishma and asked him to hold his hand, as it would humiliate his guru. Out of respect, Bhishma acquiesced.

Pitrs then appeared and obstructed the chariot of Parashurama, forbidding him from fighting any longer. The spirit of Parashurama's father, Jamadagni and his grandfather, Rucheeka, spoke to him:

O son, never again engage in battle with Bhishma or any other Kshatriya. Heroism and courage in battle are the qualities of a Kshatriya, and study of the Vedas and the practice of austerities are the wealth of the Brahmans. Previously you took up weapons to protect the Brahmans, but this is not the case now. Let this battle with Bhishma be your last. O son of the Bhrigu race, it is not possible to defeat Bhishma.
—Mahabharata 188:5

In the end, the Gods showered praise on Bhishma, and he sought the blessing of Parashurama as his guru. The avatar then acknowledged that his former student was truly invincible, telling Amba:

Using even the very best of weapons I have not been able to obtain any advantage over Bhishma, that foremost of all wielders of weapons! I have exerted now to the best of my power and might. Seek the protection of Bhishma himself, thou hast no other refuge now.
—Mahabharata 189:1

Mentorship of Drona

At the end of his time in the Vedic period, Parashurama was renouncing his possessions to take sanyasi. As the day progressed, Drona, then a poor Brahmin, approached Parashurama asking for alms. By that time, the warrior-sage had already given the Brahmins his gold and Kasyapa his land, so all that was left were his body and weapons. Parushurama asked which Drona would have, to which the clever warrior responded:

O son of Bhrigu, it behoveth thee to give me all thy weapons together with the mysteries of hurling and recalling them.
—Mahabharata 7:131

Thus, Parashurama gave all his weapons unto Drona, making him supreme in the science of arms. This would be crucial when he was teacher to both pandavas and kauravas in the upcoming Kurukshetra War.

Fate of Karna

Karna was half brother to the pandavas and son of Surya, but raised by a low caste charioteer. Karna came to Parashurama after being rejected by Drona due to his perceived caste. Karna lied and said he was Brahmin, and so Parashurama accepted him as his student, giving him knowledge of the powerful Brahmastra weapon.

One day, Parashurama was sleeping with his head resting on the lap of Karna and a scorpion crawled up the leg of the student and bit his thigh. In spite of the pain, Karna neither flinched nor cried so his guru could rest. Warm blood, however, trickled down his leg, waking Parashurama. Convinced that only a Kshatriya could have borne such pain in silence, Parashurama realized the lie of Karna, and cursed his student that his knowledge of the Brahmastra would fail him when it was most crucial.

Years later, during the Kurukshetra war, Karna had a dream in which he envisioned his guru and asked him to take back the curse he had given years back. Parashurama revealed that he had known all along Karna was a Kshatriya, but because he was a worthy student Parashurama had instructed him regardless. The avatar explained to Karna that the Brahmastra had to fail him when he needed it most. If he killed Arjuna, Duryodhana would be king instead of Yudhishthira, and chaos would ensue. Parashurama asked Karna to accept his curse and die at the hands of Arjuna, that the world might live in peace.

Different epochs

There are a number of mythologies of Parashurama in different Puranas, detailing his interactions with different gods of the Hindu pantheon, and even occurring during different Yuga due to his being Chiranjivi.


According to Puranas, Parashurama travelled to the Himalayas to pay respect to his teacher, Shiva. While travelling, his path was blocked by Ganesha, son of Shiva and Parvati. Parashurama threw his axe at the elephant-god. Ganesha, knowing the weapon had been given to Parashurama by his father, allowed it to sever his left tusk.

His mother Parvati was infuriated, and declared she would cut off the arms of Parashurama. She took the form of Durgama, becoming omnipotent, but at the last moment, Shiva was able to pacify her by making her see the avatar as her own son. Parashurama also asked her forgiveness, and she finally relented when Ganesha himself spoke on behalf of the warrior-saint. Parashurama then gave his divine axe to Ganesha and blessed him. Another name for Ganesha because of this encounter is Ekadanta, or 'One Tusk'.

Beating back the Arabian Sea

Puranas write that the western coast of India was threatened by tumultuous waves and tempests, causing the land to be overcome by the sea. Parashurama fought back the advancing waters, demanding Varuna release the land of Konkan and Malabar. During their fight, Parashurama threw his axe into the sea. A mass of land rose up, but Varuna told him that because it was filled with salt, the land would be barren.

Parashurama then did a tapasya for Nagaraja, the King of Snakes. Parashurama asked him to spread serpents throughout the land so their venom would neutralize the salt filled earth. Nagaraja agreed, and a lush and fertile land grew. Thus, Parashurama pushed back the coastline between the foothills of the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, creating modern day Kerala.

The coastal area of Kerala, Konkan, Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra, are today also known as Parashurama Kshetra or Land of Parashurama in homage.Puranas record that Parashurama placed statues of Shiva at 108 different locations throughout the reclaimed land, which still exist today.Shiva, is the source of kundalini, and it around his neck that Nagaraja is coiled, and so the statues were in gratitude for their baneful cleansing of the land.

Then he took a winnowing basket, or Surpa, and threw it at the sea. The water retreated, and from the place the basket fell at Gokarna, land rose again Gokarna. This land is called Kerala, or 'Siirparaka' (Brahmanda Purana, Chapters 98 and 99). It is also said that while beating back the sea, Parashurama fired an arrow from his mythical bow that landed in Goa at Benaulim, creating Salkache Tollem, or 'Lotus Lake'.


Kshetra scripture has a legend in which a king named Ramabhoja worshipped Parashurama. He was the ruler of the lands between Gokarna and Kanyakumari and was proclaimed king of the entire Parashurama Kshetra. While performing aswamedha yajna, he was plowing the land, but mistakenly killed a snake that was a raksha in disguise. In repentance, Rambhoja was directed by Parashurama to build a rajathatpeetha, or large silver pedestal, with the image of a serpent at its four corners in obeisance. Parashurama also ordered that he distribute gold to the needy equal to his own weight as Tulabhara.

Rambhoja performed the ashwamedha yajna successfully and Parashurama appeared before him again, declaring that he was pleased. To this day, the silver pedestal remains a center of pilgrimage. The surrounding land is known as Thoulava, in remembrance of the Tulabhara of Rambhoja.


Parashurama once became annoyed with the sun god Surya for making too much heat. The warrior-sage shot several arrows into the sky, terrifying Surya. When Parashurama ran out of arrows and sent his wife Dharini to bring more, the sun god then focused his rays on her, causing her to collapse. Surya then appeared before Parashurama and gifted him with two inventions that have since been attributed to the avatar, sandals and an umbrella.


Nath tradition holds that Parashurama, after enacting his vengeance, sought out Dattatreya atop Mount Gandhamadana for spiritual guidance. Their conversations gave rise to Tripura-rahasya, a treatise on Advaita Vedanta. It was here the deity instructed the warrior-sage on knowledge of scripture, renunciation of worldly activities, and non-duality, thus freeing him from the karmic cycle of death and rebirth.

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Tuesday, January 15, 2013


                MAHARSHI   GAUTAMA

Maharshi Gautama

Maharshi Gautama

Rishi Gautam is the son of Rahoogan and one of the Saptarshi of the present Manvantar. Each Kalp has 14 Manvantar and each Manvantar has its own Saptarshi. The present Manvantar is the 7th one and its Saptarshi are Atri, Vashishth,, Kashyap, Gautam, Bharadwaaj, Vishwaamitra and Jamadagni.

Rishi Gautam was married to Ahalyaa, the daughter of Mudgal, a Paanchaal King. Mudgal was in the lineage of Raajaa Bharat >> Rantidev. Gautam and Ahalyaa had three sons named Vaam Dev, Nodhaa and Shataanand. Among them Vaam Dev was  one of the Rishi with Soorya Vansh - Raajaa Dasharath, Shataanand was the Purohit of Raajaa Janak in Janak Puree, in Mithilaa. Shataanand had the son named Satyadhriti and his son was Maharshi Sharadwaan. One day Maharshi Sharadwaan saw Urvashee Apsaraa and his semen fell on a bush of Moonj. It caused to born a boy and a girl. Mahaaraaj Shaantanu saw them and brought them home and brought them up. He named them Kripaa and Kripee. Kripaa became the Kul Guru of Kaurav and Paandav and Kripee was married to Aachaarya Drone who taught weapons knowledge to Kaurav and Paandav.

All his three sons were the seers of Mantra. There is a hymn called Bhadraa in Saam Ved which is attributed to Rishi Gautam.

Gautam's 60-year old penance is described in Mahabharata, Shaanti Parv.

Naarad Puraan also describes a 12-year long famine in which Gautam fed the Rishi and saved them.

Devee Bhaagvat relates Godaavaree River with Gautam Rishi.

The Tryambakeshwar Jyotirling is there because of Rishi Gautam.

Some famous disciples of Maharshi Gautam were Praacheen-yogya, Shaandilya, Gaargya and Bharadwaaj.
Gautam has written Dharm Sootra also, containing 28 chapters with 1,000 aphorisms - the oldest book on Dharm.

Gautam shares the Angiraa ancestry with Bharadwaaj

Who was Ahalyaa? - Another Version
Once it happened so that Brahmaa Jee took the best of every creature and created a woman and named her Ahalyaa. Brahmaa was very happy to see her. He was so much happy that he himself started staring at her. She was going around the Dev Sabhaa. In whichever direction she went Brahmaa started looking at her in the same direction. Since she went in all the directions, Brahmaa Jee had to have four faces to look at her in all the directions. All Devtaa were also noticing this. Seeing this Brahmaa Jee came to himself and to save himself from her temptation he gave her to Maharshi Gautam to serve him. Ahalyaa stayed with him for a long time and served him well for many years. After that Brahmaa finally gave her to Rishi Gautam and Rishi Gautam Jee married her. Indra was also attracted to her since she was created and he had her in his mind since then but as Brahmaa Jee gave her to Rishi Gautam, he was not happy. He was always thinking about Ahalyaa.

Ahalyaa-Indra Incident - One Version
Well, Ahalyaa was very beautiful. Since Indra saw her he wanted to have her. According to this version, Ahalyaa had also seen Indra in the Dev Sabhaa and she was also attracted to Indra, but she could not disobey Brahmaa Jee so she went with Rishi Gautam. Thus Ahalyaa was also attracted to him. So one day Indra asked Chandramaa to help him. CHandramaa agreed. The plan was that Gautam Rishi used to go for his morning ablutions at about 4 am. On that fateful day Chandramaa and Indra would go there together. Chandramaa would take a form of a cock and crow at 2 am, and when Muni would go for his daily chores early in the morning, Indra would come in the form of Gautam and had her. So on that day Chandramaa assuming the form of a cock crowed before the usual time of cock's crow. Muni did not know it so he rose and went out early, but as he was on his way he felt something fishy. He was suspicious that how come that the crow crowed today so early, but he didn't pay much attention to it.

But when he returned home, he saw Indra coming out of his hut. He understood everything. He gave Shaap to Ahalyaa that she should become a stone. On asking forgiveness of Ahalyaa he reduced the Shaap to "that when Raam will incarnate in Tretaa Yug, and He will touch you with His foot, you will regain your beauty and life and will come to me." And he gave Shaap to Indra that "he should lose his manhood". Ahalyaa became the stone and waited till Raam incarnated on Prithvi and touched her with His foot; but Devtaa became very worried with Muni's Shaap to Indra. So they went to Brahmaa Jee and prayed him to help Indra.

Ahalyaa-Indra Incident - Another Version
According to the other version Ahalyaa was sinless. She did not know that the coming person was Indra. Since he was in the form of Muni Gautam, she thought that Muni had come back early. She was in fact highly surprised to see him come back from his chores so soon, and asked him the reason also. Muni told her that he wanted to make love with her that is why he had come back. Although Ahalyaa could not digest this reason, because that was not the time for it, and since she was a Pativrataa woman, she could not say no to him. They had a good time and when the impersonated Gautam Rishi got ready to go again for his daily chores, he showed her his real form - of Indra. Seeing this Ahalyaa got frightened and asked him to get out of the hut immediately, but unfortunately Gautam Rishi was coming back at the same time as he was going out of the hut, so both got trapped.

With this version Gautam Rishi gave Shaap to Indra that since he came there with the desire of the lust, he should have thousand marks of the woman's vagina all over his body. Indra got very ashamed of this Shaap. He then did severe Tap for Shiv Jee and Shiv Jee gave him Var that those marks would change into thousand eyes. Since then Indra has been called thousand-eyed Indra.

It is said that after this incident with his wife, Gangaa told Rishi Gautam that he should not need to go anywhere for his daily chores and she came very near to his Aashram.

Gautam Brings Gangaa
Taken from    Read a similar story  How Godaavaree River Descended?
Once a natural drought occurred and the rain did not fall for 100 years. All vegetation became dry, earth's surface became too dry to produce anything, so Gautam did penance to bring water on Earth to comfort Earth's creatures. He pleased Varun Dev, because he was the Devtaa of water, and when he appeared before him he asked him to rain for the benefit of the world. But Varun said - That it all was in the hands of Shiv, and he should ask him only that thing which he can give to him. At this Gautam asked him an Akshaya Kund of water. Varun asked him to dig a pond and put an everlasting lotus flower in it, so that the pond is always filled with water. Rishi Gautam dug a pond, Varun filled it with water and blessed that pond - "This pond will always have water up to the area of one arm's length and whoever will serve this pond will get his wishes fulfilled."

Rishi Gautam started farming with that water. The news spread and people started living near that pond. Because of Varun's blessings the pond never dried. Once Gautam Rishi drew water from that pond urgently, so his students came to fetch water from that pond. Some Rishi's wives also came to take water at the same time. Rishi's wives requested the disciples to take water after they had taken water from the pond. The disciples felt insulted and they told Ahalyaa that Rishi's wives did not let them fetch water from the pond. Hearing this Ahalyaa herself came with them and let them take water and went away. Seeing this Rishi's wives also got angry and told some false things to their husbands.

In turn Rishi wanted to teach Gautam a lesson. They could not teach him the lesson on his own so they started worshipping Ganesh Jee. Ganesh Jee got pleased, appeared before them and said - "O Rishi, Your intention is not good, you should not bring destruction at your hands." Rishi said - "We are insulted without any reason, that is why our wish should be fulfilled." Ganesh Jee again said - "Since Gautam Rishi is blessed by Shiv, so he will remain unharmed but since your intention is bad, you will be in great difficulty." After saying this Ganesh Jee disappeared.

Then one day Ganesh Jee appeared as a sick cow and started grazing on Gautam's field. Coincidentally Gautam was near his field, so he saw a cow spoiling his crop. He tried to make her go but when she did not go just like that, he took a straw a grass and touched her body with it to make her go. Unfortunately the as the straw touched to cow's body, she died. All this was planned so as soon as the cow died, the other Rishi soon gathered there and blamed Gautam and their wives blamed Ahalyaa for the death of that cow. They all decided that nobody should even see the face of Gautam like Rishi; and they made Gautam Rishi, his wife and disciples move from that place. Rishi Gautam went one Kos away from that spot. Gautam was also very sad after the death of the cow, so he decided that until he will clear of this sin, he will not touch anybody and will not do any religious ceremony. This period was very painful for him.

After 15 days Gautam Rishhi went to those Rishi and asked them to clear the cow killing sin. Seeing the condition of Rishi Gautam, the other Rishi felt pity on his, but because of their ego they said to him - "Since your disciples and wife have insulted our wives they have to bear the consequences. Only Lord Shiv will free him from this sin. For this he has to go around the earth and call loudly out about your sin; after that he should keep fast for one month and circumambulate 100 Braahman. Then only you would be free from your sin. After this he should make Gangaa appear at this place, take bath in her, make 1 Crore mud Shiv Ling (Paarthiv Poojan) and start meditate on him." Gautam did it and pleased Shiv Jee. Shiv Jee got pleased and appeared before him with Paarvatee and his Gan and asked him to ask for a boon. Gautam said - "If you are pleased, please release me from my sins." Shiv said - "You were cheated and were given so much stress for the sin you have not committed. Those Braahman will have to suffer for this, They will have only fake knowledge, because whoever harasses my devotee can never be happy."

Gautam was very kind, he said - "Those Braahman are innocent, because, because of them only he could see him. But I will be very happy if you give me Gangaa from your head." Shiv put down Gangaa from his head and giving her to Gautam he said to Gangaa - "From today Gautam will serve you and you wash away his all sins." Gangaa said - "I will surely follow your orders, I will purify Rishi and his family and then go back to my place." Shiv Jee said - "You stay here till the beginning of Vaivaswat Manvantar." Gangaa said - "I will stay here till then only when I will be worshipped here and Shiv, Paarvatee and his Gan will stay on my banks." All Devtaa got very happy to hear this, they said - "When Brihaspati will be in Sinh Raashi (Leo Sign), her importance will spread in the three Lok. After 12 years when the Time comes, and people will come there, take holy bath there, and visit Shiv temple, they will be free from their sins."

So Gangaa flowed from Brahm Shail (Vindhya Giri) through Udumber branch and flowed in the form of River Gautamee. This source of that river is called Gangaa Dwaar. Gautam Rishi, his disciples , and Ahalyaa took bath in it, worshipped Shiv Ling and got free from their sins. but when the Rishi who blamed him came to take bath, she disappeared. At present this pace is called Panchvatee in Naasik.

During the last days of Brahm Shail, Gautam and Ahalyaa came there. When Ahalyaa was taking bath there, Rishi got attracted to her and looked at her with desire. This sight made her pregnant and gave birth to a baby girl Anajanee. When Gautam moved from Brahm Giri, Anjanee was 9 months and 27 days old.

Gautam Moves to Chandrabaanee
Taken from
Gautam, Ahalyaa and their daughter lived at Brahm Giri (Naasik) for some time. Those other Rishi used to come there to visit but they were jealous with him for his simplicity. When they threw stones on him, they became flowers to Gautam. After the birth of Anjanee, Gautam moved to Chandrabaanee, in Uttaraakhand region. Chandrabaanee is also considered Dronaachaarya's in-law's place, means Ashwatthaamaa's mother's place, means Kripee and Kripaachaarya's place.

Here it is written that Ahalyaa cursed Anjanee to be a virgin mother, because she spoke to Gautam Rishi against her. In fact all the three information, that Anjanee was the daughter of Gautam and Ahalyaa, and that she was cursed by her mother, and that the curse was to become the virgin mother; are new to me.



Monday, January 14, 2013


Sage   Viswamitra

Brahmarshi   Viswamitra

Sri Budha Kousika Rishi

Sri Budha Kousika Rishi wrote the Sri Rama Raksha Stotra. Who was he? For those who may know, the identity of Sri Budha Kousika Rishi may be very obvious. For many, it is not. The obvious answer is that he was a Sage – i.e., a rishi. He was extremely learned and talented. The Sri Ram Raksha Stotra is composed in the Anushtup Chanda, in the metre of a specific combination of numbers. The usual answer, however, is that Sri Budha Kousika Rishi was the great Brahmarishi Vishwamitra.

I have not found the correct answer, and I feel I should say so. Why do I hesitate to accept that Brahmarishi Vishwamitra could be the author? This is because Vishwamitra was already recognized as a Brahmarishi, many hundreds of years earlier, when he met Dasharath to ask him to allow Ram to accompany him. He was not recognized or mentioned as Kousika Rishi during and after his association with Ram. The identity of Sri Budha Kousika Rishi, the author of the Sri Rama Raksha Stotra, is a mystery.

It is said, in the Stotra, that Shiva appeared to Sri Budha Kousika Rishi, in his dream, and recited the entire Sri Rama Raksha Stotra to him. At dawn, the next day, Sri Budha Kousika Rishi, penned down the entire Sri Rama Raksha Stotra.

There could be four theories. The most recounted and repeated theory is that Sri Budha Kousika Rishi is nobody other than Brahmarishi Vishwamitra himself. I am very tempted to believe it. This theory is on the basis of the fact that he was the King Kousika, and later, the Kousika Rishi, before he was recognized as the Brahmarishi Vishwamitra.

The second theory is that the ‘Kousika’ gotra began with Brahmarishi Vishwamitra, since he was the King Kousika, and later the Kousika Rishi. Thus, a later Rishi, of the ‘Kousika’ gotra, and with the prefix, Budha, being the name of the Planet Mercury in Sanskrit, has written the Sri Rama Raksha Stotra, after the appearance of Shiva in his dreams.

The third theory is that there could have been an entirely different rishi, unconnected and unrelated to Brahmarishi Vishwamitra, or to the ‘Kousika’ gotra. He could have existed, in some other time period, and he could have written the Sri Rama Raksha Stotra. If this were to be true, then indeed, the identity and story of Sri Budha Kousika Rishi would be an absolute riddle.

The fourth theory is that a rishi named ‘Budha’, in Brahmarishi Vishwamitra’s ashrama, could have been recognized as a ‘Kousika Rishi’. He could have been known as such, because he was one of the rishis in the ashram of ‘Kousika’, i.e., Vishwamitra. This rishi could have been later recognized through his signature title in the stotra, as ‘Budha Kousika Rishi’. In an alternate aspect, the title 'Budha' could be a samasa, ie an intended recognition to the 'budhdhi' i.e., intelligence of 'Kousika'.

It is written, that, in ancient times, the sages in an ashram, the pupils of a teacher or guru in a gurukul ashram, or the descendants of an important sage, could also inherit the ‘gotra’ or clan name of the master. It is also known that certain important sages also gave rise to new clan lines, or ‘gotras’ that were named after them. This is true of the sages who had manifested as the sons born from Brahma, the Creator. In contemporary times, the ‘gotra’ is usually referred to for arranging marriages between two different clans. That, of course, is a different story.

The seven of the most important rishis of those times are (1) Gautama, (2) Bharadwaja, (3) Vishwamitra, (4) Jamadagni, (5) Vasishta, (6) Kashyapa, and (7) Atri. It is later mentioned that Kousika was a descendant of the great Brahmarishi Vishwamitra. Similarly, Kaundinya was a descendant of the great sage Vasishta, and Vatsa was descended from the great sage Jamadagni.

Why could the author be Brahmarishi Vishwamitra? First reason, of course, Viswamitra knew Ram. He knew him better than anyone else, perhaps better than his father, Dasharatha, or even his brother, Lakshmana. He knew Ram, before Sita or Hanuman became inseparable aspects of his life. He knew the abilities of Ram, and knew exactly about the aspect of the manifestation of Vishnu, and of the aspect that he had descended in a human avatar, solely for the purpose of the decimation of Ravana and the Rakshasas.

If anyone could describe Ram, in relative perspective to every aspect of his being, behaviour and of his very existence, and ascribe powers to these aspects, it could be none other than Brahmarishi Vishwamitra. But, if the great Brahmarishi did in fact write down the Sri Ram Raksha Stotra, why did he not sign it by the name of Vishwamitra? That indeed, is a mystery. The other contemporary sages, including the first seven, have signed their own names to the works ascribed to them.

Second, is because of the one line that almost gives away his identity – “Hridayam Jaamadagnyajit” – “The one who conquered the son of Jamadagni, please protect my heart”. Vishwamitra and Parashurama, the son of Jamadagni, never got along. They hated each other and were in perpetual mistrust of each other. None other than Brahmarishi Vishwamitra could be more pleased by the fact that Ram defeated Parashurama, and would therefore ascribe the aspect that such a conqueror could indeed protect the ‘heart’.

There are two disturbing lines that make me wonder, if Brahmarishi Vishwamitra may not be the Budha Kousika Rishi, the author of the Sri Ram Raksha Stotra. One is in praise to Vishwamitra, and would the great sage have given such value to himself? The other line is in attribution to the story line of another great hero in India’s mythology that may not have occurred in the Ramayana, but is to be found in the stories of Krishna, after the Kurukshetra war. Would the Brahmarishi have stretched the context to such an extent? Or, am I missing something here?

The line in praise to the great sage is – “Vishwamitra priya shrutee” – “Rama, who is dear to Vishwamitra, protect my ears”. This line makes me doubt, for that very brief moment, if the great Brahmarishi Vishwamitra would appreciate and write about himself? To those who know the story of Vishwamitra, it would be very tempting to say that the great sage would indeed write about himself and ascribe such affection to Ram. Here, I beg to differ. If he would indeed write about his affection to Ram, he could have written about the friendship in more lines, rather than limit it to only one half of the metre.

The other line that strengthens the doubt is – “Naabhim Jambavadaashraya” – “Rama, who gave refuge to Jambavan, protect my navel”. Again, there is this very brief doubt. The story of Jambavan, and his presence in the Ramayana, is much later to Sugreeva, Hanuman, Vaali, Angad and the other vanaras. Jambavan, is depicted, as a bear-man. Rama gives refuge to Jambavan, who swears allegiance in the war to come with Ravana. Rama did give refuge, but in those moments of the Ramayana, he gave support and courage to all those who approached him. It is much later, after the Kurukshetra war that Jambavan reappears in the story of Satyakam and Sri Krishna. The refuge sought by Jambavan from Sri Krishna is certainly more emphatic.

Was there an entirely unknown rishi, by the name, Budha Kousika Rishi? Why would Shiva come to him in his dreams and why would he be asked to write the Sri Rama Raksha Stotra? Who was this great rishi, who penned the Stotra with such precision in accurate metre. Not many realize that the Sri Ram Raksha Stotra is written in the same metre as the Ramayana. Was it indeed difficult in those times to write the Sri Ram Raksha Stotra in such precision? It may not have been, for the great sages composed several stotras during those times, and their authorship is included in the earlier couplets.

I am tempted to agree to the premise that the Brahmarishi Vishwamitra was indeed the author of the Sri Ram Raksha Stotra, after he received the instructions from Shiva. Why? It is not because of the precision of the composition, but it is in the affection, love, the entire surrender to Ram, by one who had already achieved perfection. The great sage, returned to urban areas, to the Royal Court, after nearly two hundred years of residing in the remote forests, to seek Ram, to take it upon him to train Ram, and to insist upon it, and to argue with Dasharath to allow it to happen.

The author, Budha Kousika Rishi, explains that he was commanded in his dream, “Aadhishtavan yathaa swapne”, to write the Ram Raksha Stotra, “Ram raksha mimaam haraha”, and he wrote it out in the morning, “Tathaa likhit vaana praataha”, as told to Budha Kousika by Shiva, “Prabhu-dho Budha Koushikah”. That indeed, is an author, who gave the Ram Raksha Stotra to millions of devotees of Ram, and caused them to be blessed, and will do so in the future.

At Rama’s paadukas
- Dr. Bharat Bhushan
Email -
27 October 2010

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Sunday, January 13, 2013


                              S A G E   P A R A S A R A                                                 




Sai Ram. We will take up the story of Sage Parasara, the father of Sage Veda Vyasa, whom we remembered earlier. Let us remember the Dhyana Sloka of Sage Veda Vyasa again:

Vyasam, Vasishtha naptharam
Saktheh Poutram akalsham
Paraasaraatmajam vande
Shuka tatam taponidhim

Vysasaya Vishnu Rupaya
Vyasa Rupaya Vishnave
Namo Vai Brahma Nidhaye
Vaasishtaya Namo Namah

So, remembering this great lineage of sages is remembering Sri Hari. It increases our own Bhakti and Jnana. Let us prostrate to the great sages and take up the interesting story of sage Parasara.

Birth of Parasara

As mentioned above, sage Parasara was the grandson of Vasishtha, who was / is the Manasa Putra of Lord Brahma. Sage Vasishtha was / is considered to be a Brahmarshi, i.e. a sage with full Brahma Jnana, knowledge of the Self. As we noted in the story of sage Viswamitra, the gods asked him to go to sage Vasishtha and if he accepts Viswamitra as a Brahmarshi, they too would accept him.

So, sage Viswamitra used to visit Vasishtha and bow to the sage. He used to welcome Sage Viswamitra with the benediction, “Welcome Rajarshi!” and that used to infuriate sage Viswamitra (since as Vasishtha rightly pronounced, the seeds of rajo guna and thus the anger were still dormant in Viswamitra). He used to kill one of Vasishtha’s sons to spite him and to take revenge for the insult, but sage Vasishtha never retaliated (to a Brahma Jnani, there is no doer and there is no deed, ever thing happens and the Jnani remains a witness, unruffled by the sights).

Sakthi, one of the hundred sons of sage Vasishtha was thus killed in one of the visits of sage Viswamitra. Another version of the story is that he was killed by a demon, who was a king but forgot the sense of right and wrong under the spell of a curse from sage Viswamitra. In any case, it seems Viswamitra is linked to the passing away of Sakthi.

In the end, of course sage Viswamitra realized his error and gave up all thoughts of anger, violence and revenge etc. He just bowed to sage Vasishtha and was retracing his steps when Vasishtha called him back with the words, “Welcome, Brahmarshi!” thus attesting that Viswamitra indeed burnt off the seeds of anger, desires etc. in the fire of Brahma Jnana and has thus become a Brahmarshi. Now, let us return to the story of Parasara.

Sage Vasishtha brought up his grandson Parasara. When he grew up, he came to know of the death of his father Sakthi at the hands of a kshatriya and became very angry (thus indicating that mere birth in a caste does not make one a Brahmin). He started a yagna where he was offering rakshasas as the offering to the fire god! Because of the power of mantra, the one who was called could not resist and was coming and falling into the sacrificial fire! Something similar took place when Janamejaya, son of Parikshit took up a yagna where the sages were calling all snakes to be offered as sacrifice and Takshaka, the serpent king who was the cause of the death of king Parikshit went and coiled himself to the throne of his friend Indra, the king of Swarga. The sages conducting the yagna saw that with their divine sight and called upon takshaka, the throne and Indra to come and offer themselves into the sacrificial fire! That is the power of the mantra. The calamity was of course saved and Indra and Takshaka escaped. Now let us get back to the story of sage Parasara.

Parasara gets Brahma Jnana

When sage Vasishtha saw that his grandson was performing an yagna that was not in consonance of a person in the Brahmanic path (Brahma Jnana), he came to the place where the yagna was being conducted and dissuaded him and preached him Brahma Jnana. A Brahma Jnani sees Unity behind all the diversity and is not affected by Maya, illusion. Parasara learnt Brahma Vidya from Vasishtha and Pulastya (I think He was related from Parasara’s maternal side – to be confirmed).

Matsyagandhi becomes Yojanagandhi

Parasara was travelling and in the course of his travels came to the river Ganges and stayed the night at the place of a fisherman king / chieftain named Dasharaja. Satyavati was his young daughter (legend has it that she was found in the belly of a fish and thus carried smell of the fish in her body). She was asked to ferry the boat and thus was asked to help the sage cross the river Ganga. While she was rowing the boat the sage asked from where the fishy smell was coming and Satyavathi confessed that it was indeed coming from her body. He gave her a title of Matsyagandhi and then took pity on her and with his yogic powers, gave her a boon that a beautiful perfume would emanate from her body and would spread far and wide. Thus Matsyagandhi became Yojanagandhi. A yojana is traditionally equal to 8 miles (12.8 km).

Parasara begets Veda Vyasa

As the ferry was slowly coursing its way across Ganga, the beautiful perfume emanating from Satyavati captivated the sage Parasara. The sage saw with his divine powers that the whole thing is happening for a noble cause. He then asked Satyavati to fulfill his sexual desire! The young girl was surprised and protested that she is a virgin, it was broad daylight and she is not free but is dependent on her father. (One version of the story about how Matsyagandhi became a Yojanagandhi has it that she tried to put him off by saying that she is smelling, unclean etc. in addition to the other factors already mentioned and that the sage then gave her the boon of the perfume as a part of the total package!) The sage explained to her that it is the divine will that such a desire should arise in a sage like him and that the time was correct for the birth of a great soul (Lord Vishnu Himself would incarnate through her), gave her the boon of continued virginity, continued protection and affection of her father and created a thick fog that reduced the visibility to zero! It so happened that they were near a riverine island and through their union, Veda Vyasa was born instantly (not after 9 months as usual), grew up to be an adult immediately and took leave of his parents and left for tapas with an assurance to his mother that whenever she needs his help, she should just remember him and he would manifest himself before her!

Because he was born on an island, he came to be known as Dwaipayana (Dweepa meaning island), Krishna because he was dark complexioned (being an incarnation of Vishnu, who is also Megha Syama), Paaraasara (son of Paraasara), and Veda Vyasa because he took birth to divide the Vedas and make them accessible to the humans in the coming ages. Every Mahayuga (a Mahayuga is the period consisting of a Krita Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga), a Vyasa would be born to restore the Vedas. It is interesting to note that Vyasa is a post like Indra and sage Parasara was the Vyasa of the 26th Mahayuga. Krishna Dwaipayana is the Veda Vyasa of the 28th Mahayuga that is running now. Aswatthama, the son of Dronacharya will be the Veda Vyasa of the next Mahayuga.
Satyavati went back to her father and later married king Santanu, who had one son Devavratha from Goddess Ganga earlier. Devavratha became known as Bhishma because of a great vow that he took to remain a bachelor throughout his life so that the children of Satyavathi will become eligible to rule the kingdom after Santanu.

Satyavati enlists the help of Vyasa in continuing the lineage when her daughters-in-law get widowed without any children. Dhritarashtra, Pandu and Vidura are thus born. That is another story.

I give below some other incidents pertaining to sage Parasar collected from various sources on the internet.

Sage Parasara is a revered figure in Indian astrology. He wrote and compiled many Vedic scriptures; notable among them are Parasara Samhita and the Brihat Parasara Hora Sastra, which is the fundamental book of Vedic Astrology.

Sage Parasara was a great devotee of Lord Shiva. He was the spiritual master of King Janaka, the father of Sita. His connection with Siva and Siva Ganas is seen in the story below:

Krouncha was a Gandharva, During the meeting in Indrasabha, he unknowningly hit Yamadeo with his leg. Yamadeo was furious and cursed Krouncha “You will get the body of Mushak (Mouse)”. The same Gandharva is Mushak. He started roaming in the Ashrama of Parashar Rishi, and became a nuisance by eating the grains there. Parashar Rishi prayed to Ganesha, who caught hold of the mouse. The mouse surrendered and prayed for help. Ganesha asked Mushak to ask for a blessing. Originally a Gandharva, this Mushak was rude, and in turn asked Lord Ganesh to ask him for blessing! Ganesha wisely ordered him to become his vehicle. Since then, he became Ganesha’s vehicle. We always see the mouse sitting near the feet of Lord Ganesh in any picture or statue. Chaturthi is generally observed as a day of worship of Ganapati. It is said that no one should kill mouse on this day.

Parasara was known as the "limping sage". He had his leg wounded during the attack of his ashram. When a rishi dies he merges back into an element or an archeype, Sage Jaimini was trampled by wild elephants, Sage Gautama was eaten by Cannibals, etc. When Sage Parasara was walking through a dense forest he and his students were attacked by wolves. He was unable to get away in his old age with a lame leg and he left this world merging into the wolves.

The birth place of sage Parasara is supposed at be at Panhala fort in Kolhapur district of Maharashtra. A cave supposed to be of Parashar Muni is present at the fort.

Parashar Lake : This lake is situated in a cup like valley. A temple of great scenic beauty is also here. With deep blue waters, this beautiful lake is held sacred to the sage Prashar (rishi). A three-tiered Pagoda-like temple dedicated to the sage (Siva?) lies by the lake - and he is regarded to have meditated here. No other temple in the Western Himalayas can rival the grandeur of the settings of Parashar A fair is held here in the in the month of June every year, where people gather from all neighboring villages. This lake is fed by small mountain streams. A sacred lake accompanied by a solitary temple of Lord Shiva. It was the hermitage of the ancient sage, Parasar. Absolutely a virgin lake set in a beautiful high vale is rarely visited by trekkers (except the locals for religious purposes) and its tranquil surroundings presents a tenderly feeling of absolute peace in soul alike the tryst of an unnamed butterfly with an untouched wild mountain lily...

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